This study uses the ray tracing method to simulate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of urban areas. The images are constructed for polarisations: horizontal-horizontal (HH) and vertical-vertical (VV), and different types of buildings, vegetation, and streets. Simulated images of a given area are compared with real SAR images of the same area acquired by the TerraSAR-X satellite. The simulations use the measured backscatter coefficient for HH and VV polarisations and for five different classes of terrain: houses, trees, shrubs, grass, and ground. For multiple reflections, we apply the generalized bistatic Lambertian model. The results show that, despite the limits of the ray tracing method and the approximations involved in modelling three-dimensional objects in the simulated scene, the simulated SAR images correspond well with the actual scene. All features present in the real image are reproduced in the simulated image; in particular, the double reflections of buildings and the surrounding ground appear clearly. However, discrepancies exist, and these are also discussed.
Wajer P., Woźniak E., Kofman W., Rybicki M & Lewiński S. (2018) Simulation of SAR images of urban areas by using the ray tracing method with
measured values of backscatter coefficients, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 39:9, 2671-2689