In the tourism studies literature, wilderness has been addressed from two perspectives. From the first, human, perspective wilderness is a social, subjective construction that exists only in the mind of its users. From the second, ecological, perspective it is a material, objective reality. Here, we compare these two perspectives based on data collected in one of Poland’s most popular nature-based destinations, The Great Masurian Lakes region, and develop a methodological framework which would operationalise this comparison and make it measurable. The research approach combined a survey of tourists and mapping of natural features. The data was analysed, first, to verify whether stated preferences regarding nature and the natural features surrounding tourist accommodation were coherent; this resulted in the construction of a Coherence Index (CI). Second, we analysed how stated preferences with respect to nature were linked to outdoor recreational activities; this was measured by a Nature Cruciality Index (NCI). Finally, both indexes were mapped and their spatial distributions were analysed. The findings showed that the subjective, social construction of wilderness does not always correspond to objective reality. Although tourists declared natural environment to be very important to them, in some cases the analysis found a lack of consistency between expressed preferences and the natural features found around accommodation. The phenomenon was mainly found in towns, where tourists were most nature-indifferent. Moreover, they were not interested in activities with high NCI. In some cases, however, the two perspectives were coherent, especially among nature-oriented tourists who stayed near lakes and those who stayed in villages (who were most conscious of their choices). Tourists who stayed near lakes undertook the most nature-crucial activities. These findings can be used to enhance local planning, management and marketing strategies for nature tourism.
在旅游研究文献中, 对荒野有两个研究视角: 第一个角度是人文的视角, 把荒野看作一种社会的、主观的建构, 并且仅存在于使用者心中。第二种视角是生态视角, 把荒野看作一个客观的物质实体。本文根据从波兰一个广受欢迎的自然旅游地大马祖里湖地区收集的数据, 比较了这两个视角, 并且发展了一个可以进行比较并且能够测量的方法论框架。本研究融合旅游者调查与自然环境绘图, 首先, 构建了一个一致性指数, 检验了旅游者对住宿设施周围自然及自然特色陈述偏好是否一致;其次, 构建一个自然奇异性指数, 测量了有关自然的陈述偏好是如何与户外游憩活动关联的;最后, 将这两个指数得出的结果绘制在地图上, 分析了它们的空间分布。结果表明, 荒野主观的社会建构未必总是与其客观实体相一致。尽管旅游者宣称自然环境对他们来说很重要, 但是结果发现, 旅游者表述的偏好与住宿设施周边自然特色缺乏一致性。这种现象主要在城镇地区发现, 那里的旅游者对自然最不关注。并且, 他们对有高自然奇异性指数的活动也不感兴趣。但是, 在有些情形, 这两个视角又是一致的, 对清楚其选择的、逗留在湖泊或山村的自然导向的旅游者尤其如此。在湖泊周边逗留的旅游者参加了最具自然奇异性的活动。这些研究结果可用来改善当地自然旅游的规划、管理与营销活动。
KEYWORDS: Wilderness, nature, lakes, tourists’ preferences, recreational outdoor activities, mapping, nature-based destination, the Great Masurian Lakes, Poland
关键词: 荒野, 自然, 湖泊, 旅游偏好, 户外游憩活动, 绘图, 自然旅游目的地, 大马祖里湖, 波兰
Derek M., Woźniak E., Kulczyk S. (2017): Tourism in a naturebased
destination: the human versus the ecological perspectives, Tourism Geographies